Wheat - varieties, growing places and useful properties + 78 photos

Spikelet formation

Wheat is the main representative of grain crops. It is an annual self-pollinated plant. Some types can cross-pollinate.

It reproduces by grain (seeds), they germinate with an average of 4 sprouts. When the first wheat leaves emerge, the underground node begins to form a secondary root system. It can penetrate up to 1 m deep. The formation of lateral shoots begins before the knot roots. During tillering, 1 - 5 shoots appear.

The stem is represented by a hollow straw, which is divided into internodes (5-7). They are held by sheaths of the first leaf from below. Then they gradually diverge and at the top are converted into leaf plates. They are smooth, loosely arranged, 1-2 cm wide and 25-35 cm long. After the end of tillering, there is a growth of shoots by increasing the internodes from bottom to top. This process is called stemming. As a consequence, the ear passes higher on the shoot and leaves the sheath of the last leaf. Spikeletting begins.

What is rye - what do the spikelets look like, what are the names of the inflorescences?

Rye is also a cereal, and it counts up to 13 species, among which only one is a cultivated one.

The stem is upright, hollow, has knots and grows up to one meter. On rare occasions it can reach up to two. The leaves have a bluish coloring and come with tufts. The spikes line up in two rows and grow up to 15 cm. In addition, rye is not very picky about the soil and can grow even on sandy terrain.

As for the chemical composition, it includes proteins and carbohydrates, as well as vitamins and important trace elements. Rye flour is used to bake bread. Rye bran is an excellent source of fiber and is actively used by thinners.

The general structure of the ear

The structure of the ear of wheat is a cranked stem with several segments, in the mouths of which spikelets sit on both sides. They include broad spikelet scales, with flowers hiding inside them. The latter have two floral scales - an outer (lower) and an inner (upper) one. The lower one is the apex of the wheat.

The scales are attached to each other like a spiral, as a result of which a platform is formed in their upper part. A spikelet fills the space in each of them.

Wheat spikelets are arranged strictly alternately: one to the left, the second to the right, etc. Therefore, two rows are formed on the side, the double-row side, and in front one spikelet rests on the other, the tiled side.

An ear of wheat has two outer spikelet scales. There are two to four flowers between them.

The number of spikelets in an ear, its length, varies depending on the time of year, moisture, agrotechnical and territorial conditions.

In terms of shape, the ear of wheat is:

  • spindle-shaped (the middle is wide, tapering towards the top and slightly downward);
  • Prismatic (equal width along the whole length);
  • club-shaped (widening towards the top).

Useful properties

Since wheat is a food crop, it has a huge number of different useful properties, which it pleases many customers in the stores. This particular cereal occupies a significant place in the production of most countries.

Wheat flour is used to make a wide variety of pasta products, as well as bread and confectionery products. Wheat has also been used in brewing beer for the past few decades.

The spike scale.

One of the main signs that distinguishes wheat varieties is the spike scale. It has two broad surfaces that are separated by a keel. The wider surface faces outward and is used to judge the shape and size of the scales. To determine the variety, the middle part of the spikelet is evaluated. At the top and bottom, they change under the influence of the environment.

The color of winter wheat scales comes in red and white. When the air temperature is cold, the coloring of the spike becomes more pronounced; when the air temperature is warm, it becomes paler.

A distinction is made according to length:

  • short 6-7 mm;
  • medium 8-9 mm;
  • long 10-11 mm.

By width:

  • narrow - 2 mm;
  • medium - 3 mm;
  • wide - 4 mm.

By shape:

  • Oval (width almost twice the length);
  • ovoid (narrowed at the top and widened at the bottom);
  • lanceolate (narrow, elongate, tapering downwards and upwards, length 2 times longer than width).

Clypeus has tooth and shoulder, passes on all length or does not reach base. It can be narrow, weakly expressed, straight or curved.

The shoulder may be absent, oblique, straight or tuberculate, and of various widths.

The denticle differs in length between the unstemmed and spinous forms, the former being short and blunted, the latter being long and sharp.

Where can I grow wheat?

If you've ever wondered how to sprout wheat before, you've probably already learned that it grows almost everywhere except in the tropics, as the variety of newly bred varieties makes it possible to use almost any not only climatic, but also on top of everything else the soil conditions.

The plant is not afraid of heat, is characterized by cold tolerance.


Grain has a germ, an endosperm, an aleurone layer, a beard, a fruit shell and a seed shell. It is evaluated for size, color, weight, phenol staining ability, and vitreousness.

According to the size is divided:

  • small up to 5 mm;
  • Medium 6-7 mm;
  • Large 7 or more.

By shape:

  • oval-elongated;
  • ovoid;
  • oval;
  • barrel-shaped.

By type of cross-section:

  • square;
  • rectangular;
  • rounded;
  • oval.

Number of grains in an ear of wheat

On average, there are 7 grains in an ear. This figure varies with environmental conditions. The most grains are deposited in the middle part of the ear. There are fewer at the top and the base. For example, 2 at the base, 4 in the middle, and 2 at the top. This is why one ear may contain between 20 and 50 grains.

The second method

How to draw wheat in another uncomplicated way? It also requires a sheet of paper, a simple pencil and an eraser.

Draw thin, slightly slanted lines. At the top of each line represent spikelets. Draw a few grains on each side and one at the very top. Grains can be in the form of droplets, as well as in the form of small ovals.

Draw thick strips on both sides of the ear, and on top of draw a few short lines. Dorisovyvivym couple of leaves next to the stems. Wipe unnecessary lines - and the figure is done. You can finish drawing a few more spikelets and color the picture with paints or pencils, using yellow and brown.

More ways to draw wheat

Types of wheat

There are characteristics by which different species of wheat are distinguished:

  • The pubescence of the spike;
  • spikeiness;
  • the color of the spikelets;
  • The color of the ear;
  • The color of the grain.

The stem of wheat is pubescent along its edges with thin and short tufts. The longer one is at the base of the spikelet scale. This trait is important for variety approbation. The pubescence can be sparse and dense. The color of the straw under the spike at maturity becomes dark purple. But this phenomenon is not present in all varieties. Some do not change color.

There are awned wheat and awnless wheat.

Awned forms have long, medium, or short awns; they also come in:

  • coarse (tough);
  • thin (delicate);
  • intermediate (medium).

The more moisture, the more delicate the flanks, and vice versa. Rough ones are more brittle. The awns are either parallel to the ear or move away from it at a certain angle. The spikeless form is pointed.

The color of the awns is red, white or black. When the soil is moistened, the black color of the awn changes to grayish-red, in dry weather, it becomes blacker.

The color of the spike is white, red, black, and gray-smoky. White refers to a straw-yellow color. Red refers to all shades from pale tones to bright red. Gray-smoky is found as a complement on white and red spike coloration. Black is found when growing in the south. It is paler in moist, cool environments.

Grains are found in white, red and purple. White-grain varieties are white, amber, and vitreous in color. Red-grain varieties are pink, bright red, and brown-red. The color of the grains is determined if their number is at least 1000.

The third way

If you want to know how to draw wheat a little more realistically, then this method will suit you.

  1. With a hard pencil, draw stems with slightly bent lines, and elongated ovals on top of them. At this stage, the future spikelets resemble reeds. When making a sketch, do not put too much pressure on the pencil, the lines should be visible faintly.
  2. Next, inside the ovals we draw grains, which look like drops. First, you draw one grain at a slight incline, on the other side a little higher the second, the third again slightly higher, opposite the second, and so on until you have filled the previously drawn oval. It is not terrible if you go a little beyond the boundaries of the sketch.
  3. At the tips of the grains draw straight lines axes.
  4. Now add volume to the stems by drawing an extra line next to the existing one.
  5. Draw leaves near the stems and erase the extra lines. To depict a bent leaf, draw an elongated triangle with the base upwards and at an angle another equally thin triangle.
  6. Draw with a soft pencil and add a little shadow at the base of each grain. Above and below lightly paint the stem and leaves with a hard pencil. You can use a pencil of the same hardness, pressing it with different force to get different shades. It is also possible to color the resulting picture.

    Drawing wheat

One can draw as one spikelet as well as a whole sheaf or even a field. In addition, the spikelets can be slightly modified, placing, for example, grains a little further apart, or dorisoving the side of the extra row of grains.

Where to use ears

In addition to the traditional processing into flour, the kernels are used to make medicinesThe spikelets are used to make bouquets, the waste from threshing is used as food for livestock.

In medicine.

From the germ of the grain an extract called Cholef is prepared.for patients with muscular dystrophy. From the grain is prepared "Liquid Mitroshina" for the treatment of herpes, eczema neurodermatitis, sycosis.

The grains are processed into oilwhich is rich in B vitamins and tocopherol. This drug is prescribed for the treatment of burns, psoriasis and eczema. In cosmetology it is recommended to strengthen hair and treat stretch marks in the postpartum period.

In folk medicine there are remedies for internal and external use Of bran, decoction of grain and sprouted seeds.

The wheat ear - structure, botanical description and features

In floristics

From the spikelets of the bread grain, experienced and novice masters make beautiful wreaths, bouquets and compositions with the participation of various elements. For a variety of decor, the spikelets are painted in bright colors.

The trend is to decorate wedding tables, boarding cards and invitations for guests with small sheaves of spikelets. They make decorations and children's toys.

Important! In floristics wheat is usually called by its Latin name, Triticum.

In cattle breeding

It is estimated that up to 90% of all wheat grown in the world is used as feed for livestock.. This is grain, haylage, straw and green mass.

The differences between rye and wheat

Rye and wheat have the usual structure of cereals. Each crop is known throughout the world and there is even a hybrid of the two crops. It is called triticale. Although, there are many differences.

Wheat and rye: differences
Wheat and rye: the differences

  • Wheat originated in southeastern Turkey and is called the fertile crescent. As for rye, it appeared in the Mediterranean.
  • If we talk about time, wheat appeared much earlier and therefore there are many varieties. It is important to note that each country creates its own crops, and not just one species, so imagine how many there could be. Varieties are divided into hard and soft, spring and winter, and annual and biennial. It is also important to know that hard wheat is exclusively spring wheat and soft wheat is exclusively winter wheat.
  • If we talk about cultivated rye, it can be both winter and spring. Although, as we have already said, there are enough species of it as well.
  • Rye is resistant to frost and grows quickly. So it can be grown even in very cold areas, where the cold is very strong. Moreover, rye is not too picky in terms of soil, and can feel quite well even in poor soil. The root system of the plant itself ennobles the soil.
  • Although wheat is resistant to frosts, the soil layer is important for it. It does not germinate in clay or sand. That said, it does not like heat at all. The leaves of the unripe cereal are bright green, while rye has a grayish hue.
  • Cereals also differ in their inflorescences. As we said earlier, wheat has a more complex structure of ears. Cereal grains have different shapes, colors, and lengths. An elongated grain can be 4-11 cm long.
  • Rye grains are oval or elongated and no more than a centimeter long. In addition, their color can also vary - gray, white, yellow, brown or greenish.

Wheat is different from rye
Differences between wheat and rye

  • The chemical composition of rye is more diverse. The fact is that rye grains have a good content of tocopherol and niacin. Thanks to these vitamins, the nervous system works better, and also the cholesterol is normalized. So if you prefer to eat ham, it is better to do it with black bread or grain bread.
  • Rye contains a lot of dietary fiber. That is why rye products are often prescribed for the prevention of colon cancer.
  • Wheat grains contain a lot of gluten. That is why dough made from such flour is considered high quality. All baked goods have a beautiful crust and hold their shape well.
  • Wheat is often used in sprouted form, because in this case the activity of useful substances in it reaches a maximum concentration.
  • But also rye is not always used for food and fodder. It is still from ancient times considered a talisman, and dry spikelets can be put a child under the mattress.
  • Wheat is often used in medicine to create immunomodulatory drugs, and rye is used in folk remedies and homeopathy.

Wheat is cultivated in many countries and, accordingly, more of it is produced in the world. At the same time, rye is considered a strategic crop for Russia and is hoarded.


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